I recently completed a chapter for a book on lifelogging that discussed the concepts and uses of data as they are expressed in representations of self-tracking (see here for the full paper, available open access). In part of the chapter I looked at the ways in which people writing about the quantified self and other interpretations of self-tracking represent data and data practices, including in articles published in Wired magazine and other media outlets and blogs.
From the beginning of discussions of the quantified self, the representation of data in quantified self-tracking discourses (as least as it was expressed by its progenitors) included several factors. These include the following: quantified data are powerful entities; it is important not only to collect quantified data on oneself, but to analyse these data for the patterns and insights they reveal; data (and particularly quantified or quantifiable data) are an avenue to self-knowledge; the emergence of new digital and mobile devices for gathering information about oneself have facilitated self-tracking and the generation of quantified personal data; quantifiable data are more neutral, reliable, intellectual and objective than qualitative data, which are intuitive, emotional and subjective; self-tracked data can provide greater insights than the information that a person receives from their senses, revealing previously hidden patterns or correlations; self-tracked data can be motivational phenomena, inspiring action, by entering into a feedback loop; everything can be rendered as data; and data about individuals are emblematic of their true selves.
In more recent times, however, it is evident that a further set of concepts about self-tracked data have emerged since the original euphoria of the early accounts of quantified self-tracking. They include: the meaning of self-tracked data can be difficult to interpret; personal data can be disempowering as well as empowering; the conditions in which data are gathered can influence their validity; the contexts in which data are generated are vital to understanding their meaning; individuals’ personal data are not necessarily secure or private; quantified personal data can be reductive; and personal data can be used to discriminate against individuals.
We as yet know very little about how people are conceptualising and engaging with digital data about themselves. Given the recent scandals about how people’s personal data may be hacked or used or manipulated without their knowledge (the Snowden revelations about security agencies’ use of metadata, the Facebook emotional manipulation experiment, the celebrity nude photo and Sony Pictures hackings, for example), as well as growing coverage of the potentially negative implications of self-tracking as described above, these are pressing issues.
Edit (12 December 2015): More on this topic can be found in my book The Quantified Self: A Sociology of Self-Tracking Cultures.